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Friday 23 August 2019
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Topic: Allergy

August 5, 2019
A significant increase in the incidence of allergies has been registered in developed countries, first beginning in the 1960s and steadily progressing thereafter
A study from NHS Digital – data from which were reported on the BBC website in 20161 –  showed that there had been a 33% increase in admissions for different forms of allergy and an increase of 19% of cases of anaphylactic shock in hospital facilities in the UK in the preceding five years.
 
And the UK is not alone in this, in that a significant increase in the incidence of allergies has been registered in developed countries, first beginning in the 1960s and steadily progressing thereafter. 
August 2, 2019
Scientists have identified a subtype of immune cell that drives the production of antibodies associated with anaphylaxis and other allergic reactions
Scientists have identified a subtype of immune cell that drives the production of antibodies associated with anaphylaxis and other allergic reactions. 
 
The research was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, and reveals a potential target for new therapies to prevent severe allergic reactions. The findings are published online in the journal Science.
 
July 31, 2019
The World Health Organization estimates that 235 million people around the world suffer from asthma. But little is known about the impact of asthma on symptomatic people's ability to work.

A multi-national survey has revealed that asthma sufferers are missing nearly one-tenth of work hours due to their symptoms, which also results in a loss of productivity and affects their emotional wellbeing.

This new research, published in the Journal of Asthma and Allergy, surveyed over 1500 symptomatic asthma patients across six countries and found that, on average three out of four workers could not work to their full potential.

July 25, 2019
Australian researchers have successfully completed a human trial on a vaccine designed to eliminate the risk of a severe allergic reaction to European honeybee stings

Australian researchers have successfully completed a trial on a vaccine designed to eliminate the risk of a severe allergic reaction to European honeybee stings.

July 8, 2019
Carefully designed, integrated multi-'omic' studies could accelerate the use of precision medicine for asthma patients, according to researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA
In an invited review article published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Scott Tyler, PhD, and Supinda Bunyavanich, MD, MPH, report that numerous studies have shown the value of applying transcriptomics and other 'omic' approaches for defining asthma subtypes - but they also cite the need for more studies aimed at pulling together these disparate data streams for a more comprehensive view of the disease.
 
July 2, 2019
'Back to school asthma' - a seasonal peak in cases associated with the start of the school year in September - is linked to a tripling in the rate of GP appointments across England

'Back to school asthma’- a seasonal peak in cases associated with the start of the school year in September - is linked to a tripling in the rate of general practitioner (GP) appointments across England, reveals research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.1

July 1, 2019
Even when rhinitis is mild, it is important to accurately diagnose its pathology, understand which allergens trigger it, and follow the prescribed therapy to avoid the condition deteriorating and becoming worse
Allergic rhinitis is one of the most frequently neglected and underappreciated diseases. When the symptoms are limited to sneezing and itchy eyes, many sufferers decide to treat themselves with do-it-yourself remedies or remedies recommended by friends and relatives; however, this is a mistake.
 
July 1, 2019
Research suggests that fats can help to aggravate the T-cell activated inflammation in the lungs that is seen in asthma
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have studied which genes are expressed in overactive immune cells in mice with asthma-like inflammation of the airways. Their results, which are published in the journal Immunity, suggest that the synthesis and breakdown of fats plays an important part in the process.
 
Th2 cells plays a vital part in asthma-related inflammation, but the rarity of these cells and a lack of sensitivity technology has made these cells hard to study in any detail.
 
June 20, 2019
Understanding lung cells and their signals could help towards finding new asthma drug targets
For the first time, researchers have mapped the building blocks of the human lungs and airways, in both asthma patients and those without asthma. 
 
The research from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, University Medical Center Groningen, Open Targets, GSK and collaborators revealed the identity of each cell type, creating the first draft Human Cell Atlas of the lung. They also discovered an entirely new cell state that produces mucus in asthma patients.
 
June 11, 2019
A robust diagnosis is important to ensure the correct management is implemented and unnecessary food exclusion is avoided as there may be adverse nutritional consequences, especially if a major food group, such as milk, wheat or fruits/vegetables are excluded
Food allergy in adults is usually mediated by IgE antibodies, with one or more immediate typical allergic symptoms (flushing, hives, itching, swelling, vomiting, diarrhoea, difficulty breathing) to trigger foods.1
 
June 6, 2019
Scientists have found that young children with severe eczema infected with Staphylococcus aureus are at a higher risk of developing a food allergy
In a study published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, scientists from King's College London have found that young children with severe eczema infected with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacterium, are at a higher risk of developing a food allergy.1
 
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is found in the nose and the skin of healthy individuals; however, SA is more common in sufferers of eczema, especially severe eczema.
 
June 6, 2019
In the Phase III POLYP 1 and POLYP 2 studies, omalizumab met both co-primary endpoints and key secondary endpoints in adults with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps with inadequate response to intranasal corticosteroids
Novartis has announced positive topline data from two Phase III, multicentre studies evaluating omalizumab (Xolair®) for the treatment of adults with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) who have not adequately responded to standard-of-care (intranasal corticosteroids). 
 
Omalizumab, an injectable biologic treatment designed to target and block immunoglobulin E (IgE), met both co-primary endpoints and key secondary endpoints across both POLYP 1 and POLYP 2 Phase III trials.
May 30, 2019
QUARTZ is the first completed study of the Phase III PLATINUM clinical development program which evaluates both QMF149 and QVM149 (indacaterol acetate, glycopyrronium bromide and mometasone furoate)
Novartis has announced the first study results from the Phase III PLATINUM clinical development program assessing the safety and efficacy of QMF149, an investigational, once-daily, fixed dose combination asthma treatment containing indacaterol acetate (IND - a long-acting beta agonist [LABA]) and mometasone furoate (MF - an anti-inflammatory (ICS)).
 
May 29, 2019
Interplay between psychological factors and allergies in the research spotlight

Led by Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Director of the University Center for Health Sciences at University Hospital Augsburg (UNIKA-T) and Professor of Environmental Medicine at the Technical University of Munich, the team has differentiated between perennial or non-seasonal allergies and study participants also answered questions about their psychological health.

May 29, 2019
Among 20 children with EoE who wore the Viaskin Milk patch, nine saw an improvement in their symptoms and normalisation of their biopsies after 11 months

A study from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) finds that a skin patch may be useful in treating children with a painful, chronic condition called eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) triggered by milk.1

May 23, 2019
Inhaled combination for asthma treatment (indacaterol acetate, glycopyrronium bromide and mometasone furoate) was superior to the standard of care (long-acting beta-agonist/inhaled corticosteroid) in terms of lung function in a Phase II study
New Phase II data for Novartis's IND/GLY/MF (QVM149), an investigational, once-daily, fixed dose combination asthma treatment containing indacaterol acetate, glycopyrronium bromide and mometasone furoate, delivered with the dose-confirming Breezhaler® inhalation device, has been presented at the 2019 annual international congress of the American Thoracic Society (ATS).
 
April 29, 2019
The diagnosis of the causes of urticaria is very challenging, because very many physiological or pathological conditions are associated with the appearance of hives
Urticaria is a clinical condition characterised by the presence of skin lesions, called wheals. Typically, these are intensely itchy and surrounded by an area of erythema. Wheals can have a diameter from a few millimetres or appear as confluent lesions with a diameter of several centimetres. In some cases, urticaria is associated with angioedema, which appears as a swelling of soft tissues from fluid accumulation due to dermal oedema.
 
April 24, 2019
Research illuminates the relationship between eczema and food allergy

Scratching the skin triggers a series of immune responses culminating in an increased number of activated mast cells in the small intestine, according to research conducted in mice.

This newly identified skin-gut communication helps illuminate the relationship between food allergy and atopic dermatitis. The study was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and led by researchers at Boston Children's Hospital.1

April 15, 2019
Identification of the allergic triggers of rhinitis is crucial in order to implement adequate avoidance measures in both atopic and non-atopic patients; moreover, this identification can help administer specific therapies, such as allergen immunotherapy
Rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa clinically defined by two or more symptoms of nasal itching, sneezing, anterior or posterior rhinorrhoea, and nasal blockage.1
 
April 12, 2019
Scientists could be a step closer to providing more precise pollen forecasts to the 25% of the UK population who live with either asthma or hay fever
A study published in Nature Ecology & Evolution has shown that it is not just the overall 'load' of grass pollen in the air that could cause those particularly bad days for asthma and hay fever sufferers.1 Days that see increased asthma attacks or intense hay fever could be related to the release of pollen from particular grass species.
 
April 12, 2019
An eight-year hunt for the cells that drive the extreme childhood food allergy eosinophilic oesophagitis has identified a potential new way to treat the disease while also raising questions about a dietary supplement taken to reduce bowel inflammation
An eight-year hunt for the cells that drive the extreme childhood food allergy eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has identified a potential new way to treat the disease while also raising questions about a dietary supplement often taken to reduce bowel inflammation.
 
The study, led by experts at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, is posted online in the Journal of Clinical Investigation1 and will be published in print in May. 
 
April 12, 2019
Researchers have effectively prevented the binding of peanut allergens with IgE to suppress the allergic reaction to peanuts using a first-in-class design of allergen-specific inhibitors
In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at the University of Notre Dame in the US have effectively prevented the binding of peanut allergens with IgE to suppress the allergic reaction to peanuts using a first-in-class design of allergen-specific inhibitors.
 
April 5, 2019
An international research team has found that patients with the lung disease bronchiectasis also often display sensitivity to airborne allergens, and has highlighted the particular role that fungi appear to play
An international research team from Singapore has found that patients with the lung disease bronchiectasis also often display sensitivity to airborne allergens, and has highlighted the particular role that fungi appear to play.
 
Their discovery suggests that bronchiectasis patients should be examined for a range of allergies, since the treatment for allergies already exists and controlling them could prevent the bronchiectasis from worsening.
 
March 28, 2019
ARTEMIS data demonstrate that most patients exceeded what are considered to be protective levels well before a full year of treatment
Aimmune has announced that its Phase III European clinical trial of AR101 for the treatment of peanut allergy, known as ARTEMIS (AR101 Trial in Europe Measuring oral Immunotherapy Success), met its primary efficacy endpoint.