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Wednesday 24 April 2019
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Topic: Featured Articles

April 15, 2019
Identification of the allergic triggers of rhinitis is crucial in order to implement adequate avoidance measures in both atopic and non-atopic patients; moreover, this identification can help administer specific therapies, such as allergen immunotherapy
Rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa clinically defined by two or more symptoms of nasal itching, sneezing, anterior or posterior rhinorrhoea, and nasal blockage.1
 
April 15, 2019
New research suggests that B cells gone bad could be the culprit in rheumatoid arthritis
A comprehensive profile of B cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a first of its kind study, has been published in Arthritis & Rheumatology.1 
 
April 12, 2019
Scientists could be a step closer to providing more precise pollen forecasts to the 25% of the UK population who live with either asthma or hay fever
A study published in Nature Ecology & Evolution has shown that it is not just the overall 'load' of grass pollen in the air that could cause those particularly bad days for asthma and hay fever sufferers.1 Days that see increased asthma attacks or intense hay fever could be related to the release of pollen from particular grass species.
 
April 12, 2019
An eight-year hunt for the cells that drive the extreme childhood food allergy eosinophilic oesophagitis has identified a potential new way to treat the disease while also raising questions about a dietary supplement taken to reduce bowel inflammation
An eight-year hunt for the cells that drive the extreme childhood food allergy eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has identified a potential new way to treat the disease while also raising questions about a dietary supplement often taken to reduce bowel inflammation.
 
The study, led by experts at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, is posted online in the Journal of Clinical Investigation1 and will be published in print in May. 
 
April 12, 2019
Researchers have effectively prevented the binding of peanut allergens with IgE to suppress the allergic reaction to peanuts using a first-in-class design of allergen-specific inhibitors
In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at the University of Notre Dame in the US have effectively prevented the binding of peanut allergens with IgE to suppress the allergic reaction to peanuts using a first-in-class design of allergen-specific inhibitors.
 
April 8, 2019
Research on the X chromosome has pointed to an abnormality in the immune system's T cells as a possible factor in lupus and other autoimmune diseases
Eighty-five percent of people with lupus are female, and their second X chromosome seems partly to blame. 
 
According to a new study by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, females with lupus do not fully "silence" their second X chromosome in the immune system's T cells, leading to abnormal expression of genes linked to that chromosome.
 
April 5, 2019
An international research team has found that patients with the lung disease bronchiectasis also often display sensitivity to airborne allergens, and has highlighted the particular role that fungi appear to play
An international research team from Singapore has found that patients with the lung disease bronchiectasis also often display sensitivity to airborne allergens, and has highlighted the particular role that fungi appear to play.
 
Their discovery suggests that bronchiectasis patients should be examined for a range of allergies, since the treatment for allergies already exists and controlling them could prevent the bronchiectasis from worsening.
 
April 4, 2019
Different models should be evaluated to overcome specific transition items such as barriers to successful outcomes, and poor compliance and complications, in order to improve quality of life for the future adult
Transition is defined as the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents and young adults from a child-centred to adult-oriented health care system.1
 
April 2, 2019
The SLE populations of the pivotal BLISS-52 and BLISS-76 trials constitute large patient cohorts, ideal for post-hoc survey to better understand the disease itself, and the effects of belimumab treatment
The treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has traditionally been non-specific, comprising glucocorticoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and broad immunosuppressive agents.
 
The monoclonal antibody belimumab towards the soluble counterpart of the B cell activating factor belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF), also known as B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), is the only targeted therapy approved by regulatory agencies for SLE, and has been available for use since 2011.1
March 28, 2019
Patients with lupus are on average seven to nine times more likely to develop heart disease than the general population, and younger women with lupus are 50-times as likely to develop the disease as young women without the disease
 
A research team at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) has shown that the enzyme responsible for nitric oxide production stops working properly when exposed to serum from lupus patients. They also showed that its ability to produce nitric oxide can be restored by administration of L-sepiapterin. Their findings are published in an article published ahead of print in Lupus Science & Medicine.1
 
March 26, 2019
Results presented at ENDO 2019, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting
Researchers using the world's largest twin registry to study seven autoimmune diseases found the risk of developing the seven diseases is largely inherited, but that some diseases are more closely related than others.
 
March 26, 2019
In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, no serum autoantibody is associated with psoriatic arthritis, whereas other biomarkers have been proposed for early diagnosis of the disease or to predict treatment response for a more adequate allocation of resources
Psoriatic disease is a chronic inflammatory systemic condition characterised by psoriasis, which affects up to 3% of the general population, and in about 30% of cases, by psoriatic arthritis (PsA), which may also be diagnosed in the absence of a personal history of psoriasis.
 
March 19, 2019
Diagnostic procedures in allergy have been greatly modified (and improved) by molecular allergy tools that not only identify the molecular allergen that causes sensitisation but also provide personalised therapeutic solutions

Allergies are the most common immune system disorders. Their prevalence is continuously increasing, especially in Western countries, where they affect more than 25% of the population.1

March 18, 2019
The role of the allergy specialist is critical in risk identification, diagnosis and management of potentially severe allergic reactions in both children and adults
Allergies are a major ongoing problem, especially in Western countries. Currently, it is estimated that about a quarter of the world's population suffers from some type of allergy, mainly due to allergic rhinitis or allergic bronchial asthma.
 
However, the most dangerous reactions (anaphylaxis) usually occur through allergic reactions to foods, drugs and Hymenoptera (for example, wasps, bees, ants, etc) bites.
 
The Big Eight
March 8, 2019
A study funded by the Lupus Research Alliance shows that depleting the number of harmful B cells with a novel immunotherapy that employs CAR T-cells might offer an effective strategy to treat lupus
Depleting the number of harmful B cells with a novel immunotherapy that employs modified T cells may offer an effective strategy to treat lupus, according to a study funded by the Lupus Research Alliance. 
 
These findings offer a renewed optimism for the elimination of B cells to provide a therapeutic option in lupus and pave the way for clinical research to test this new approach.
 
March 7, 2019
Researchers have found a compound that may treat inflammatory bowel disease without directly targeting inflammation
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in the USA have found a compound that may treat IBD without directly targeting inflammation. The compound tamps down the activity of a gene linked to blood clotting. They discovered that the gene, SERPINE-1, was turned on at sites of intestinal inflammation and damage, and blocking its activity reduces IBD symptoms in mice.1
 
March 4, 2019
Could dose de-escalation be an alternative strategy to decrease drug exposure, related risk, and treatment‐related costs while maintaining clinical remission in IBD?
The introduction of anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy in 1999 has revolutionised the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The TAXIT trial introduced widely therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to tailor anti-TNF therapy and optimise the limited treatments options more effectively, particularly supporting decisions around non-response, loss of response and dose intensification.1 
 
March 1, 2019
A protein known to play a role in cancer may also be increasing fibrosis in scleroderma patients
In a recent study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Amr Sawalha MD, a professor in the Division of Rheumatology at the University of Michigan and his team examined scleroderma at the molecular level to better understand the fibrosis process.1
 
February 28, 2019
The results of a recent international study may contribute to the development of new therapies for chronic inflammatory bowel disease
An international research group from the Cluster of Excellence "Precision Medicine in Chronic Inflammation" in Kiel and Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin has uncovered a critical mechanism that controls immune reactions against microorganisms in the intestine. The results have been published in Nature Immunology.1
 
Led by Prof Dr Alexander Scheffold, the group as has uncovered a critical mechanism that establishes the balance between immune system and microbiota.
February 28, 2019
After completing up to four years of egg oral immunotherapy treatment, certain study participants were able to safely incorporate egg into their diet for five years
New research regarding egg oral immunotherapy (eOIT) has been presented at the annual American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology conference in San Francisco.
 
February 20, 2019
Researchers at the University of Helsinki have found that pollen allergen immunotherapy has favourable effects on the molecular events and microbiome profile in the nasal membrane
Birch pollen allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic disorder in the Northern part of the globe, and it attributes to significant morbidity and economic burden.
 
According to a study by researchers at the University of Helsinki, pollen allergen immunotherapy has favourable effects on the molecular events and microbiome profile in the nasal membrane.
 
February 20, 2019
While bacterial imbalances have been tied to many immune-related diseases, authors of a new study say their experiments are the first detailed evidence of a link between bacterial imbalances in the gut and potentially life-threatening forms of systemic lupus erythematous
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is linked to an abnormal mix of bacteria in the gut according to a new study led by scientists at NYU School of Medicine.
 
The study, published in the Annals of Rheumatic Diseasesshowed that 61 women diagnosed with SLE had roughly five times more Ruminococcus gnavusgut bacteria than 17 women of similar ages and racial backgrounds who did not have the disease and were healthy.1 Lupus is more common in women than in men.
 
February 18, 2019
According to a new statement from a panel of national and international experts in gastroenterology, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other areas, interventional (or therapeutic) IBD endoscopy has an expanding role in the treatment of disease and of adverse events from surgery
A report from the panel, Role of interventional inflammatory bowel disease in the era of biologic therapy; a position statement for the Global Interventional IBD Group, was published in the February issue of GIE: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.1
 
February 18, 2019
A recent study has suggested that immune cells in the bowel of people who suffer with coeliac disease are permanently replaced by a new subset of cells that promote inflammation
Immune cells in the bowel of people who suffer with coeliac disease are permanently replaced by a new subset of cells that promote inflammation, suggests a new study involving researchers at Cardiff University.1
 
This permanent 'immunological scarring' lays the foundation for the disease to progress and could have long-term implications for gut health in affected patients.