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Wednesday 19 June 2019
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Topic: Featured Articles

June 18, 2019
Using immuno-positron emission tomography to image monoclonal antibodies directed against specific innate immune cell markers, investigators were able to effectively assess IBD in murine models
Inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be quickly and precisely diagnosed using a new type of nuclear medicine scan, according to research published in the June issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
 
June 18, 2019
The research has focused on different types of macrophages, and how they work when bacteria are present
There is no precise cure for Crohn's disease and causes are believed to vary. But one indicator of the condition - an abnormal reaction of the immune system to certain bacteria in the intestines - has had new light shed on it thanks to scientists at the University of Plymouth.1
 
June 11, 2019
A robust diagnosis is important to ensure the correct management is implemented and unnecessary food exclusion is avoided as there may be adverse nutritional consequences, especially if a major food group, such as milk, wheat or fruits/vegetables are excluded
Food allergy in adults is usually mediated by IgE antibodies, with one or more immediate typical allergic symptoms (flushing, hives, itching, swelling, vomiting, diarrhoea, difficulty breathing) to trigger foods.1
 
June 7, 2019
Experts from Norway found that the risk of paediatric coeliac disease was 8% lower per 10g increase in fibre intake during pregnancy
High fibre intake during pregnancy is linked with a decreased risk of coeliac disease in children, new research presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) has shown.1 
 
June 6, 2019
Scientists have found that young children with severe eczema infected with Staphylococcus aureus are at a higher risk of developing a food allergy
In a study published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, scientists from King's College London have found that young children with severe eczema infected with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacterium, are at a higher risk of developing a food allergy.1
 
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is found in the nose and the skin of healthy individuals; however, SA is more common in sufferers of eczema, especially severe eczema.
 
June 6, 2019
Older men with scleroderma have more oestrogen than postmenopausal women with the disease, which could explain why the disease is often more severe in men
Oestrogen is the quintessentially female hormone.
 
It is surprising, then, that a Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) study found that a type of oestrogen, oestradiol, was more abundant in older men with scleroderma than in postmenopausal women with the disease. The MUSC team reports the findings of their National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study in Arthritis Research & Therapy.
 
June 6, 2019
Although most people with chronic constipation do not visit a doctor, it is still diagnosed in more than one million GP consultations and 63,000 hospital admissions in the UK every year; the way it is detected, however, varies considerably
Research by King's College London, published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology,1 finds that the public's perception of constipation differs drastically from that of doctors' and from the formal diagnosis guidelines.
 
Researchers also identified six key sets of symptoms common to both that in the future could form the basis of a new medical definition for constipation.
 
June 3, 2019
The management and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is becoming more individualised thanks to the combined efforts of basic scientists and clinicians
The ultimate goal of modern medicine is a personalised approach for the individual patient, that is, a tailored management based on a finely tuned definition of immunogenetics, epigenetics, microbiome, and biomarkers, to maximise results and minimise risks of treatment (particularly of new biologics and small molecules). 
 
May 31, 2019
Overall, the findings provide the most detailed snapshot to date of the microbiome in people with IBD, during active and non-active disease states
A new study led by researchers from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard is the first to have observed the complex set of chemical and molecular events that disrupt the microbiome and trigger immune responses during flare-ups of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.1
 
May 30, 2019
The research was supported by Wellcome Trust, Versus Arthritis, and NIHR Birmingham Biomedical Research Centre, which is based at University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Birmingham in the UK
Pioneering research by scientists at the Universities of Oxford and Birmingham published in Nature brings us a step closer to developing targeted therapies for inflammatory diseases.1
 
The research team shows, for the first time, that different types of fibroblasts - the most common cells of connective tissue in animals - are organised in different layers in the joint and are responsible for two very different forms of arthritis; osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
 
May 30, 2019
Scientists used powerful cryo-electron microscopes at the University of Leeds' Astbury Centre to reveal the structure of the regulator, comprised of two proteins in the body called BRISC and SHMT2, to understand for the first time how they work together in a cell.
Scientists have identified a new internal regulator that helps control the body's response to fight infection.
 
The discovery could be a target for new drugs to tackle autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and scleroderma, where healthy tissues are attacked by the body's own immune system.
 
"We want to put a brake on the body's own immune system to stop it turning on itself," said Dr Elton Zeqiraj from the University of Leeds.
 
May 29, 2019
Interplay between psychological factors and allergies in the research spotlight

Led by Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Director of the University Center for Health Sciences at University Hospital Augsburg (UNIKA-T) and Professor of Environmental Medicine at the Technical University of Munich, the team has differentiated between perennial or non-seasonal allergies and study participants also answered questions about their psychological health.

May 29, 2019
Among 20 children with EoE who wore the Viaskin Milk patch, nine saw an improvement in their symptoms and normalisation of their biopsies after 11 months

A study from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) finds that a skin patch may be useful in treating children with a painful, chronic condition called eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) triggered by milk.1

May 29, 2019
Scientists have discovered a potential biological reason why women are more likely to develop adrenal disorders, including cancer; the answer could lie in the increased turnover of hormone-producing cells found in the adrenal glands of females

Scientists have discovered a potential biological reason why women are more likely to develop adrenal disorders, including cancer. According to the researchers, the answer could lie in the increased turnover of hormone-producing cells found in the adrenal glands of females.

May 29, 2019
Researchers have devised a cell co-culture platform that reproduces a patient's tumour structure in 3D and which can be used to test several drugs or their combinations at different stages of the tumour's development

Why doesn't the same treatment work in the same way for every patient? How can a drug's performance be optimised without causing side effects due to an excessive dosage?

May 29, 2019
The PHARM-CHF trial investigated whether regularly seeing a pharmacist improves adherence to heart failure medications

Elderly patients with heart failure who see a pharmacist once a week are more likely to take their tablets and be active in daily life, according to late breaking results from the PHARM-CHF randomised controlled trial presented at Heart Failure 2019.1

May 23, 2019
The findings highlight the importance of increased awareness of lupus and its accelerated progression in certain racial/ethnic groups, and they point to the need for greater efforts to support early diagnosis and treatment in these populations
In the first epidemiologic study comparing lupus among four major racial/ethnic groups, researchers found that, following a lupus diagnosis, Blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics are at increased risk of developing problems related to the kidneys, the neurological system, and the blood. The findings have been published in Arthritis Care & Research.1
 
May 17, 2019
Faecal microbiota transplant, or the transfer of stool from a healthy donor to a patient, has been found highly effective in reversing severe Clostridiodes difficile diarrheal infections in adults
A new study in the journal Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the largest faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) study in children to date, found it both safe and effective and also identifies predictors of success.
 
May 17, 2019
A new study describes a method of reprogramming regulatory T cells that usually suppress immune responses into inflammatory cells that not only permit but also intensify an antitumour immune response
A new study from the Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases (CIID) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) describes a method of reprogramming the regulatory T cells that usually suppress immune responses into inflammatory cells that not only permit but also intensify an antitumour immune response.1 
 
May 10, 2019
Largest trials of their kind suggest that whole body MRI may be quicker and cheaper than standard imaging for detecting spread of colorectal and non-small cell lung cancers, while just as sensitive
Trials with people with newly-diagnosed colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer suggest that whole body MRI could reduce the time it takes to diagnose the stage of cancers.
 
The results are from two prospective trials with nearly 500 patients across 16 UK hospitals, published in The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology and The Lancet Respiratory Medicine journals.1,2
 
May 3, 2019
Researchers found the new test was 90-100% accurate in correctly identifying IBD patients who did not require multiple treatments
Scientists at the University of Cambridge have developed a new test that can reliably predict the future course of inflammatory bowel disease in individuals, transforming treatments for patients and paving the way for a personalised approach.
 
May 2, 2019
Researchers say high dose-rate brachytherapy could offer an effective treatment that is convenient for patients and brings potential time and cost savings for hospitals
A single high dose of radiation that can be delivered directly to the tumour within a few minutes is a safe and effective technique for treating men with low-risk prostate cancer, according to a study presented at the ESTRO 38 conference.
 
Radiotherapy traditionally involves a series of lower dose treatments that take place over several days or week. The new treatment, high dose-rate brachytherapy, delivers radiation via a set of tiny tubes.
 
April 30, 2019
These analyses report on secondary endpoints from the Stop&Go study, with the main endpoint for second-line being progression-free survival
Continuous chemotherapy shows greater benefit in patients with advanced breast cancer by both improving survival and maintaining quality of life compared to intermittent scheduling, according to analyses of the Stop&Go study presented at the ESMO Breast Cancer Congress 2019.1,2  
 
April 29, 2019
The diagnosis of the causes of urticaria is very challenging, because very many physiological or pathological conditions are associated with the appearance of hives
Urticaria is a clinical condition characterised by the presence of skin lesions, called wheals. Typically, these are intensely itchy and surrounded by an area of erythema. Wheals can have a diameter from a few millimetres or appear as confluent lesions with a diameter of several centimetres. In some cases, urticaria is associated with angioedema, which appears as a swelling of soft tissues from fluid accumulation due to dermal oedema.