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Sunday 20 October 2019
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Topic: gastroenterology

October 10, 2019
On 2 October, 2019, United European Gastroenterology, the European Association for Gastroenterology, Endoscopy and Nutrition, and the Healthy Stomach Initiative, recognised World Stomach Day
Originally initiated by the Health Stomach Initiative, World Stomach Day aims to raise awareness of the global burden of gastric diseases and the need for further research in the field as well as improved prevention and treatment strategies. 
 
October 7, 2019
The largest study ever to look at why an expensive and commonly–used group of drugs fails some patients with Crohn’s disease has identified a genetic marker which could individualise drug treatment
A UK-wide collaboration led by the University of Exeter, Royal Devon & Exeter NHS Foundation Trust and the Wellcome Sanger Institute, has demonstrated that a genetic variant carried by 40% of the population explains why some patients develop antibodies against the anti-TNF drugs, infliximab and adalimumab and lose response.
 
October 3, 2019
A new partnership between scientists at the University of Birmingham and Novo Nordisk aims to discover new treatments for people suffering from fatty liver disease

The University of Birmingham’s Centre for Liver and Gastrointestinal Research and Novo Nordisk have joined forces in a collaboration supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Birmingham Biomedical Research Centre.

The NIHR Birmingham BRC brings together the expertise of University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust (UHB) and the University of Birmingham, both members of Birmingham Health Partners (BHP).

October 1, 2019
The method revealed previously undiscovered genes linked to the disease, and accurately predicted whether thousands of other people had the disease

Scientists have developed a computer method that may help improve understanding and treatment of Crohn's disease.

The study, published in Genome Medicine, used artificial intelligence to examine genetic signatures of Crohn's in 111 people. The method revealed previously undiscovered genes linked to the disease, and accurately predicted whether thousands of other people had the disease.

October 1, 2019
Despite the low incidence, most patients die from the disease and therefore new effective therapies are urgently needed

New data have shown for the first time that targeted therapy can improve the outcome of patients diagnosed with advanced cholangiocarcinoma.

September 23, 2019
CT-P13 SC is the subcutaneous version of Remsima® (biosimilar infliximab, CT-P13). This recommendation will now be reviewed by the European Commission
Celltrion Healthcare has announced that the CHMP has adopted a positive opinion for CT-P13 SC for marketing authorisation in the EU in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 
 
September 17, 2019
Assessors from the Joint Advisory Group (JAG) on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, which is hosted by the Royal College of Physicians, visited the new unit at the Quadram Institute to ensure the Trust is meeting all regulatory requirements
The Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital’s endoscopy service has been described as the best in the country following an inspection.
 
The service, which moved into the state-of-the-art building in December, received high praise from assessors who were impressed by the design and found all endoscopists working to the “highest performance standards.”
 
September 6, 2019
The decision extends the indication of Lonsurf in the EU, which already is indicated as monotherapy for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic colorectal cancer
Servier and its partner Taiho Pharmaceutical have announced that the European Commission (EC) has approved the use of Lonsurf® (trifluridine/tipiracil) as monotherapy for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic gastric cancer including adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, who have been previously treated with at least two prior systemic treatment regimens for advanced disease.
 
August 22, 2019
The findings suggest a pattern of risk that may be linked to differences in gut microbiome activity along the length of the bowel and reiterate the importance of judicious prescribing, say the researchers
Antibiotic use is linked to a heightened risk of colon suggests research published online in the journal Gut.
 
The findings suggest a pattern of risk that may be linked to differences in gut microbiome (bacteria) activity along the length of the bowel and reiterate the importance of judicious prescribing, say the researchers.
 
August 16, 2019
Researchers at the Wellcome Sanger Institute, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and collaborators identified genetic changes in the newly-emerging species that allow it to thrive on a sugar-rich diet, evade common hospital disinfectants and spread easily
Clostridium difficile is evolving into two separate species, with one group highly adapted to spread in hospitals, according to UK researchers. 
 
August 9, 2019
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in the US have identified a pathway in the immune system activated in Crohn's disease that holds promise for investigating new treatments
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine identified a pathway in the immune system activated in Crohn's disease (CD) and which holds promise for investigating new treatments.
 
August 8, 2019
The research, published in Science Advances, involved an international collaboration of the world's leading coeliac disease experts
Distinct markers in the blood of people with coeliac disease have been detected within a few hours of gluten being consumed.
 
The research, published in Science Advances, involved an international collaboration of the world's leading coeliac disease experts.
 
The peer-reviewed study included the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Australia, University of Oslo in Norway, and in the US, Massachusetts General Hospital and University of Chicago. 
August 2, 2019
The University of Edinburgh study shows that Crohn's disease affects 284 people out of every 100,000 in Scotland's capital
Edinburgh has some of the highest known rates of inflammatory bowel disease in the world and the figure is expected to rise in the next ten years.
 
Researchers say that one in 125 people in the city have Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis - collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
 
They predict this figure will rise to 1 in 98 by 2028, putting further strain on NHS resources.
 
July 26, 2019
If approved, ustekinumab will be the first interleukin (IL)-12/23 inhibitor licensed for ulcerative colitis
The CHMP has adopted a positive opinion recommending marketing authorisation in the EU for the use of ustekinumab for the treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC), who have had an inadequate response with, lost response to, or were intolerant to either conventional therapy or a biologic or have medical contraindications to such therapies.
 
July 15, 2019
Researchers have identified new biomarkers for IBS in urine, which could lead to better treatments and reduce the need for costly and invasive colonoscopy procedures currently used for diagnosis
Scientists at McMaster University in Canada have identified new biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in urine, which could lead to better treatments and reduce the need for costly and invasive colonoscopy procedures currently used for diagnosis.
 
July 11, 2019
New data have shown for the first time that a combination of targeted therapies can improve survival in patients with advanced bowel cancer

Results of the BEACON CRC Phase III trial have shown that triple therapy targeting BRAF mutations in progressive metastatic colorectal tumours significantly improved overall survival and objective response compared to standard care. 

The data, reported at the ESMO World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer 2019, suggest that the three-drug combination, encorafenib, binimetinib and cetuximab, should replace chemotherapy for the one in seven patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have a BRAF mutation.1

July 4, 2019
Research has shown that calcium-channel blockers may be linked with an increased risk of the bowel condition, diverticulosis
Diverticulosis causes small bulges or pouches to appear in the lining of the intestine. Particularly affecting the elderly (as many as 65% of over 85s may be affected), diverticulosis can in some cases lead to a medical emergency if the pouches become infected or burst.
 
The new early-stage research finding comes from a team of scientists led by Imperial College London, who investigated the effectiveness and side effects of three common blood pressure medications: ACE-inhibitors, beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers.
July 1, 2019
Researchers have found that faecal miRNA could be used as a tool to assess the healthiness of gut microbiota and provide early clues to intestinal inflammation in mice
Small molecules found in faecal matter could provide clues to the early inflammation found in chronic gut conditions, such as intestinal bowel disease (IBD), and serve as new biomarkers for diagnosis, according to a study led by the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University.
 
The researchers found that faecal miRNA, small nucleic acid sequences, could be used as a tool to assess the healthiness of gut microbiota and provide early clues to intestinal inflammation in mice.
 
July 1, 2019
The findings are published in Nature Communications, and the researchers hope that the method can also be used to subdivide other autoimmune diseases
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have found a way of using gene expression conserved across species to divide patients with the inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, into two distinct groups. 
 
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease affecting the colon and rectum. It manifests itself differently in patients, and only 50-60% respond to the treatment with biological drugs.
 
July 1, 2019
Research provides a non-invasive, simple test that could not only be useful for diagnosing IBD, but also other gut disorders, such as coeliac disease and food allergies
A new study proposes a novel, non-invasive test for assessing gut function that may help screen and monitor treatment of gut diseases using only a small sample (1ml) of blood and stool. 
 
July 1, 2019
New Danish research may help direct focus towards the serious complications that on average every fifth haematological cancer patient suffers
New Danish research may help direct focus towards the serious complications that on average every fifth haematological cancer patient suffers. 
 
This is according to medical doctor and PhD Kasper Adelborg from Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, who has studied the cases of 32,000 haematological cancer patients between the years 2000-2013. Haematological cancer includes leukaemia, bone marrow cancer and cancers of the lymph nodes.
 
June 20, 2019
In this study, researchers at the Francis Crick Institute and King's College London investigated Th17 cells in mice activated by either harmless microbes normally present in the gut (gut flora), or an intestinal pathogen equivalent to a type of E.coli in humans
A type of immune cell that contributes to inflammatory bowel disease exists in two forms, 'good' and 'bad', and a new study from the Francis Crick Institute in London has characterised these distinct populations, which could help scientists to develop treatments targeting inflammation while preserving healthy gut function.
 
These two populations are akin to worker and soldier ants, playing different roles depending on their context.
 
June 20, 2019
Crohn’s & Colitis UK and IBD UK campaign to promote better care for everyone with IBD and provide greater access to psychological and dietetic support and more timely diagnosis
IBD UK, a partnership of 17 professional and patient organisations chaired by Crohn’s & Colitis UK, believe that people with IBD should receive safe, consistent, high-quality and personalised care, wherever they live and whatever their age, from diagnosis to treatment and ongoing monitoring, but unfortunately this is not currently the case.
 
June 18, 2019
Cytokines are key drivers of immune-mediated diseases altering cell behaviour through reversible protein kinases mediate protein phosphorylation, a fundamental component of cell signalling. This function is executed within the cell and activates or deactivates pathways that change gene expression controlling most signal transduction cascades from cell growth and proliferation to the initiation and regulation of immunological responses.