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Friday 23 August 2019
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Topic: Gastroenterology

August 16, 2019
Researchers at the Wellcome Sanger Institute, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and collaborators identified genetic changes in the newly-emerging species that allow it to thrive on a sugar-rich diet, evade common hospital disinfectants and spread easily
Clostridium difficile is evolving into two separate species, with one group highly adapted to spread in hospitals, according to UK researchers. 
 
August 9, 2019
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in the US have identified a pathway in the immune system activated in Crohn's disease that holds promise for investigating new treatments
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine identified a pathway in the immune system activated in Crohn's disease (CD) and which holds promise for investigating new treatments.
 
August 8, 2019
The research, published in Science Advances, involved an international collaboration of the world's leading coeliac disease experts
Distinct markers in the blood of people with coeliac disease have been detected within a few hours of gluten being consumed.
 
The research, published in Science Advances, involved an international collaboration of the world's leading coeliac disease experts.
 
The peer-reviewed study included the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Australia, University of Oslo in Norway, and in the US, Massachusetts General Hospital and University of Chicago. 
August 2, 2019
The University of Edinburgh study shows that Crohn's disease affects 284 people out of every 100,000 in Scotland's capital
Edinburgh has some of the highest known rates of inflammatory bowel disease in the world and the figure is expected to rise in the next ten years.
 
Researchers say that one in 125 people in the city have Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis - collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
 
They predict this figure will rise to 1 in 98 by 2028, putting further strain on NHS resources.
 
July 26, 2019
If approved, ustekinumab will be the first interleukin (IL)-12/23 inhibitor licensed for ulcerative colitis
The CHMP has adopted a positive opinion recommending marketing authorisation in the EU for the use of ustekinumab for the treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC), who have had an inadequate response with, lost response to, or were intolerant to either conventional therapy or a biologic or have medical contraindications to such therapies.
 
July 15, 2019
Researchers have identified new biomarkers for IBS in urine, which could lead to better treatments and reduce the need for costly and invasive colonoscopy procedures currently used for diagnosis
Scientists at McMaster University in Canada have identified new biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in urine, which could lead to better treatments and reduce the need for costly and invasive colonoscopy procedures currently used for diagnosis.
 
July 11, 2019
New data have shown for the first time that a combination of targeted therapies can improve survival in patients with advanced bowel cancer

Results of the BEACON CRC Phase III trial have shown that triple therapy targeting BRAF mutations in progressive metastatic colorectal tumours significantly improved overall survival and objective response compared to standard care. 

The data, reported at the ESMO World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer 2019, suggest that the three-drug combination, encorafenib, binimetinib and cetuximab, should replace chemotherapy for the one in seven patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have a BRAF mutation.1

July 4, 2019
Research has shown that calcium-channel blockers may be linked with an increased risk of the bowel condition, diverticulosis
Diverticulosis causes small bulges or pouches to appear in the lining of the intestine. Particularly affecting the elderly (as many as 65% of over 85s may be affected), diverticulosis can in some cases lead to a medical emergency if the pouches become infected or burst.
 
The new early-stage research finding comes from a team of scientists led by Imperial College London, who investigated the effectiveness and side effects of three common blood pressure medications: ACE-inhibitors, beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers.
July 1, 2019
Researchers have found that faecal miRNA could be used as a tool to assess the healthiness of gut microbiota and provide early clues to intestinal inflammation in mice
Small molecules found in faecal matter could provide clues to the early inflammation found in chronic gut conditions, such as intestinal bowel disease (IBD), and serve as new biomarkers for diagnosis, according to a study led by the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University.
 
The researchers found that faecal miRNA, small nucleic acid sequences, could be used as a tool to assess the healthiness of gut microbiota and provide early clues to intestinal inflammation in mice.
 
July 1, 2019
The findings are published in Nature Communications, and the researchers hope that the method can also be used to subdivide other autoimmune diseases
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have found a way of using gene expression conserved across species to divide patients with the inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, into two distinct groups. 
 
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease affecting the colon and rectum. It manifests itself differently in patients, and only 50-60% respond to the treatment with biological drugs.
 
July 1, 2019
Research provides a non-invasive, simple test that could not only be useful for diagnosing IBD, but also other gut disorders, such as coeliac disease and food allergies
A new study proposes a novel, non-invasive test for assessing gut function that may help screen and monitor treatment of gut diseases using only a small sample (1ml) of blood and stool. 
 
July 1, 2019
New Danish research may help direct focus towards the serious complications that on average every fifth haematological cancer patient suffers
New Danish research may help direct focus towards the serious complications that on average every fifth haematological cancer patient suffers. 
 
This is according to medical doctor and PhD Kasper Adelborg from Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, who has studied the cases of 32,000 haematological cancer patients between the years 2000-2013. Haematological cancer includes leukaemia, bone marrow cancer and cancers of the lymph nodes.
 
June 20, 2019
In this study, researchers at the Francis Crick Institute and King's College London investigated Th17 cells in mice activated by either harmless microbes normally present in the gut (gut flora), or an intestinal pathogen equivalent to a type of E.coli in humans
A type of immune cell that contributes to inflammatory bowel disease exists in two forms, 'good' and 'bad', and a new study from the Francis Crick Institute in London has characterised these distinct populations, which could help scientists to develop treatments targeting inflammation while preserving healthy gut function.
 
These two populations are akin to worker and soldier ants, playing different roles depending on their context.
 
June 20, 2019
Crohn’s & Colitis UK and IBD UK campaign to promote better care for everyone with IBD and provide greater access to psychological and dietetic support and more timely diagnosis
IBD UK, a partnership of 17 professional and patient organisations chaired by Crohn’s & Colitis UK, believe that people with IBD should receive safe, consistent, high-quality and personalised care, wherever they live and whatever their age, from diagnosis to treatment and ongoing monitoring, but unfortunately this is not currently the case.
 
June 18, 2019
Cytokines are key drivers of immune-mediated diseases altering cell behaviour through reversible protein kinases mediate protein phosphorylation, a fundamental component of cell signalling. This function is executed within the cell and activates or deactivates pathways that change gene expression controlling most signal transduction cascades from cell growth and proliferation to the initiation and regulation of immunological responses.
 
June 18, 2019
Using immuno-positron emission tomography to image monoclonal antibodies directed against specific innate immune cell markers, investigators were able to effectively assess IBD in murine models
Inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be quickly and precisely diagnosed using a new type of nuclear medicine scan, according to research published in the June issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
 
June 18, 2019
The research has focused on different types of macrophages, and how they work when bacteria are present
There is no precise cure for Crohn's disease and causes are believed to vary. But one indicator of the condition - an abnormal reaction of the immune system to certain bacteria in the intestines - has had new light shed on it thanks to scientists at the University of Plymouth.1
 
June 16, 2019
Study also reveals venous thromboembolism and epilepsy as potential novel comorbidities
A study has shown increased rates of type I diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients that go on to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA).1 
 
Results of the study demonstrate that the RA group reported significantly more cases of inflammatory bowel disease (1.9% vs. 0.5%, p<0.001) and type I diabetes (1.3% vs. 0.4%, p=0.01) versus controls.1
 
June 11, 2019
A robust diagnosis is important to ensure the correct management is implemented and unnecessary food exclusion is avoided as there may be adverse nutritional consequences, especially if a major food group, such as milk, wheat or fruits/vegetables are excluded
Food allergy in adults is usually mediated by IgE antibodies, with one or more immediate typical allergic symptoms (flushing, hives, itching, swelling, vomiting, diarrhoea, difficulty breathing) to trigger foods.1
 
June 7, 2019
Experts from Norway found that the risk of paediatric coeliac disease was 8% lower per 10g increase in fibre intake during pregnancy
High fibre intake during pregnancy is linked with a decreased risk of coeliac disease in children, research presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) has shown.1 
 
June 6, 2019
Scientists have found that young children with severe eczema infected with Staphylococcus aureus are at a higher risk of developing a food allergy
In a study published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, scientists from King's College London have found that young children with severe eczema infected with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacterium, are at a higher risk of developing a food allergy.1
 
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is found in the nose and the skin of healthy individuals; however, SA is more common in sufferers of eczema, especially severe eczema.
 
June 6, 2019
Although most people with chronic constipation do not visit a doctor, it is still diagnosed in more than one million GP consultations and 63,000 hospital admissions in the UK every year; the way it is detected, however, varies considerably
Research by King's College London, published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology,1 finds that the public's perception of constipation differs drastically from that of doctors' and from the formal diagnosis guidelines.
 
Researchers also identified six key sets of symptoms common to both that in the future could form the basis of a new medical definition for constipation.
 
May 31, 2019
Overall, the findings provide the most detailed snapshot to date of the microbiome in people with IBD, during active and non-active disease states
A new study led by researchers from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard is the first to have observed the complex set of chemical and molecular events that disrupt the microbiome and trigger immune responses during flare-ups of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.1
 
May 29, 2019
Among 20 children with EoE who wore the Viaskin Milk patch, nine saw an improvement in their symptoms and normalisation of their biopsies after 11 months

A study from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) finds that a skin patch may be useful in treating children with a painful, chronic condition called eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) triggered by milk.1