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Sunday 20 October 2019
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Topic: Pathology and diagnostics

October 16, 2019
Initial studies established that collagen was key to keeping breast and pancreatic cancers stiff and inaccessible to treatments. In contrast, tumours arising from the nervous system were relatively soft and lacking in collagen
Using a non-invasive imaging technique that measures the stiffness of tissues gives crucial new information about cancer architecture and could aid the delivery of treatment to the most challenging tumours, new research shows.
 
Magnetic resonance elastography was able to visualise and measure how stiff and dense tumours are in mice. The technique, which can be implemented on conventional clinical MRI scanners, may help select the best treatment course for some cancer patients.
 
October 15, 2019
Aneurysms are often called a silent killer, because patients can display no symptoms until the aneurysm bursts. Around 80% of all patients with a ruptured aneurysm die from the condition
A team from the University of Dundee School of Medicine has devised a test that detects the presence of desmosine, an amino acid that diseased aortas release into the blood and urine, which they believe can improve the diagnosis and monitoring of aortic aneurysms while possibly aiding effort to develop new therapies to slow down their progression.
 
October 1, 2019
The method revealed previously undiscovered genes linked to the disease, and accurately predicted whether thousands of other people had the disease

Scientists have developed a computer method that may help improve understanding and treatment of Crohn's disease.

The study, published in Genome Medicine, used artificial intelligence to examine genetic signatures of Crohn's in 111 people. The method revealed previously undiscovered genes linked to the disease, and accurately predicted whether thousands of other people had the disease.

October 1, 2019
NHS Vale of York CCG rolls out evidence-based intervention technology to help reduce unplanned hospital care as nationally emergency care admissions reach 10-year high

An innovative AI-based nursing service has been introduced across Vale of York to identify patients at risk of unplanned care attendances and admissions, helping to improve quality of life and reduce emergency admissions.

The pioneering project, commissioned by NHS Vale of York CCG, tackles the NHS’ ever-increasing demand for urgent and emergency care services, as highlighted in figures released by NHS Digital recently which showed that emergency admissions have peaked nationally, increasing 28% over the last ten years.

October 1, 2019
This international collaboration of researchers used WGS to analyse tumours from patients who had been diagnosed as having triple negative breast cancers

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of tumour cells could help predict the prognosis of a patient's cancer and offer clues to identify the most effective treatment, suggests an international study published in Nature Medicine.

September 27, 2019
The calculator uses a model that takes into account available data about the patient, as well as blood test results. It can be used to identify if a person is likely to have type 1 diabetes, to reduce misdiagnosis
A new calculator developed by the University of Exeter in the UK will help clinicians classify whether a patient has type 1 or type 2 diabetes, ensuring they get the best treatment and reducing complications.
 
The calculator uses a model that takes into account available data about the patient, as well as blood test results. It can be used to identify if a person is likely to have type 1 diabetes, to reduce misdiagnosis. 
 
September 26, 2019
Researchers identified or confirmed 14 regions in the human genome associated with the size and function of the left ventricle - each containing genes that regulate the early development of heart chambers and the contraction of heart muscle
Genetic research led by Queen Mary University of London could open the way to earlier identification of people at risk of heart failure and to the development of new treatments.
 
September 23, 2019
Here we present a brief summary of skin prick testing in the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity

Individuals who suffer from allergic problems, such as rhinitis, bronchial asthma, food allergy or atopic dermatitis, are usually subjected to allergic skin tests to reveal the causative factors, to put prevention strategies in place, and to implement the most suitable therapy.

September 20, 2019
The yardstick is published in Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and offers help on next steps when there is no clear cause of severe reactions
According to a new 'yardstick', there are people for whom diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis are difficult because the cause is unknown and therefore labelled 'idiopathic.'
 
September 17, 2019
Assessors from the Joint Advisory Group (JAG) on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, which is hosted by the Royal College of Physicians, visited the new unit at the Quadram Institute to ensure the Trust is meeting all regulatory requirements
The Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital’s endoscopy service has been described as the best in the country following an inspection.
 
The service, which moved into the state-of-the-art building in December, received high praise from assessors who were impressed by the design and found all endoscopists working to the “highest performance standards.”
 
September 17, 2019
In a paper published in the Journal of Medical Screening, researchers from King's College London and Queen Mary University of London have found that despite free cancer screening programmes, only 35% take part in all offered programmes
In England, women are invited for screening for three types of cancer concurrently in their sixties; for the last cervical screen before they exit the programme, for breast screening every three years, and for bowel screening every two years. 
 
This means that an average woman aged 60 can expect to receive five or six cancer screening invitations by the time she turns 65. In England, cancer screening is provided by the NHS free of charge.
 
September 16, 2019
In oncology immunotherapy, as in targeted therapy, the era of ‘one size fits all’ is past and the day-to-day work of pathologists is changing dramatically
September 13, 2019
Auditing patient doses can and should be done, but with care to ensure that all of the contributing factors are fully considered
September 13, 2019
Reducing the between-method variability in laboratory medicine is required to improve patient outcomes and traceability to global reference materials and reference methods enables manufacturers to deliver methods that give equivalent results
Globalisation affects all areas of life, including healthcare. For globalisation to have a positive influence, it is necessary to have global standards and units to which all measurements are traceable. We are familiar with global standards for time, temperature, mass and length and these standards, coupled with Système Internationale (SI) units, ensure that these parameters can be measured anywhere in the world with a small measurement uncertainty, enabling the safe transfer of data between global stakeholders. 
 
September 9, 2019
The ECLS trial, conducted in Scotland with 12,209 patients, is believed to be the largest randomised controlled trial using blood biomarkers for the detection of lung cancer
Data has demonstrated the potential of Oncimmune’s EarlyCDT® Lung test to reduce the incidence of patients with late-stage lung cancer at diagnosis, compared with standard clinical diagnosis. 
 
In a randomised controlled trial of 12,209 people in Scotland at high risk of developing lung cancer, it was shown that more people were diagnosed at an early stage of the disease in the two years after taking the EarlyCDT Lung test than those in the control arm who received standard clinical care. 
August 2, 2019
It is the first time that researchers have found a biomarker for kidney transplant rejection by antibodies.
A group of European scientists led by KU Leuven has found a biomarker that can identify patients with symptoms of kidney rejection symptoms after a transplant as a result of antibodies. 
 
The identification can be done through a simple blood test and at an early stage. It is the first known biomarker for rejection by antibodies. The researchers hope that the test can be further developed quickly for use in the hospital.
 
July 25, 2019
A simple finger-prick blood test could help prevent unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics for people with COPD

A simple finger-prick blood test could help prevent unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics for people with COPD, according to a new study by researchers from Cardiff University, University of Oxford and King's College London.

With funding from the National Institute for Health Research, the team demonstrated that using a CRP finger-prick blood test resulted in 20% fewer people using antibiotics for COPD flare-ups.

July 18, 2019
The development of high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies (genomics, transcriptomics or metabolomics) that allow simultaneous examination of thousands of genes, transcripts and proteins is expected to change the playing field
Despite the large number of laboratory tests ordered daily, diagnostic tools proven to be effective when managing immune-mediated diseases are limited, often forcing physicians to rely on a mixture of clinical, laboratory and radiological features to establish a diagnosis. 
 
July 15, 2019
The rapid, non-invasive technique could help clinicians diagnose the disease earlier, and assess how effectively the selected treatment is controlling the progression of the disease
A new way of detecting rheumatoid arthritis using infrared light could offer an objective way of diagnosing the disease and monitoring treatment effectiveness, a University of Birmingham, UK study shows.
 
July 15, 2019
Researchers have identified new biomarkers for IBS in urine, which could lead to better treatments and reduce the need for costly and invasive colonoscopy procedures currently used for diagnosis
Scientists at McMaster University in Canada have identified new biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in urine, which could lead to better treatments and reduce the need for costly and invasive colonoscopy procedures currently used for diagnosis.
 
July 8, 2019
Carefully designed, integrated multi-'omic' studies could accelerate the use of precision medicine for asthma patients, according to researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA
In an invited review article published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Scott Tyler, PhD, and Supinda Bunyavanich, MD, MPH, report that numerous studies have shown the value of applying transcriptomics and other 'omic' approaches for defining asthma subtypes - but they also cite the need for more studies aimed at pulling together these disparate data streams for a more comprehensive view of the disease.
 
July 1, 2019
Even when rhinitis is mild, it is important to accurately diagnose its pathology, understand which allergens trigger it, and follow the prescribed therapy to avoid the condition deteriorating and becoming worse
Allergic rhinitis is one of the most frequently neglected and underappreciated diseases. When the symptoms are limited to sneezing and itchy eyes, many sufferers decide to treat themselves with do-it-yourself remedies or remedies recommended by friends and relatives; however, this is a mistake.
 
July 1, 2019
Researchers have found that faecal miRNA could be used as a tool to assess the healthiness of gut microbiota and provide early clues to intestinal inflammation in mice
Small molecules found in faecal matter could provide clues to the early inflammation found in chronic gut conditions, such as intestinal bowel disease (IBD), and serve as new biomarkers for diagnosis, according to a study led by the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University.
 
The researchers found that faecal miRNA, small nucleic acid sequences, could be used as a tool to assess the healthiness of gut microbiota and provide early clues to intestinal inflammation in mice.