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Friday 18 October 2019
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Topic: Radiology and Imaging

October 10, 2019
On 2 October, 2019, United European Gastroenterology, the European Association for Gastroenterology, Endoscopy and Nutrition, and the Healthy Stomach Initiative, recognised World Stomach Day
Originally initiated by the Health Stomach Initiative, World Stomach Day aims to raise awareness of the global burden of gastric diseases and the need for further research in the field as well as improved prevention and treatment strategies. 
 
October 1, 2019
The method revealed previously undiscovered genes linked to the disease, and accurately predicted whether thousands of other people had the disease

Scientists have developed a computer method that may help improve understanding and treatment of Crohn's disease.

The study, published in Genome Medicine, used artificial intelligence to examine genetic signatures of Crohn's in 111 people. The method revealed previously undiscovered genes linked to the disease, and accurately predicted whether thousands of other people had the disease.

September 26, 2019
Researchers identified or confirmed 14 regions in the human genome associated with the size and function of the left ventricle - each containing genes that regulate the early development of heart chambers and the contraction of heart muscle
Genetic research led by Queen Mary University of London could open the way to earlier identification of people at risk of heart failure and to the development of new treatments.
 
August 1, 2019
The brain activity of patients with depression, captured by MRI scans, may help doctors predict who will respond to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
In a new study, led by the University of Glasgow and published in Science Advances, scientists show that brain activity recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help predict response to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in depression before the treatment commences.
 
The advances could help patients receive the most appropriate treatment for depression in a timely manner.
 
June 18, 2019
Using immuno-positron emission tomography to image monoclonal antibodies directed against specific innate immune cell markers, investigators were able to effectively assess IBD in murine models
Inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be quickly and precisely diagnosed using a new type of nuclear medicine scan, according to research published in the June issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
 
June 10, 2019
An upsurge in demand for proton beam therapy was predicted as the centenary of the discovery of the proton was celebrated at a major scientific conference
Proton beam therapy, an innovative form of radiotherapy that delivers cancer treatment in a more targeted manner, has recently arrived in the UK through the Rutherford Cancer Centres and an NHS facility. 
 
As the number of patients treated with this precision therapy grows, there is a debate about the benefits that this innovative treatment can bring.
 
May 22, 2019
Coronary angiography is an invasive procedure that provides an X-ray outline of the arteries supplying blood to the heart but there has been controversy over when to use it

Imaging provides a more precise diagnosis of a heart attack that can be used to individualise treatment. That is the main message of an expert consensus paper published in the European Heart Journal,1 and presented at EuroPCR 2019 in Paris.2

Heart attacks are diagnosed and treated using coronary angiography, an invasive procedure which provides an X-ray outline of the arteries supplying blood to the heart. Invasive imaging of the arteries gives more detail but there has been controversy over when to use it.

May 10, 2019
Largest trials of their kind suggest that whole body MRI may be quicker and cheaper than standard imaging for detecting spread of colorectal and non-small cell lung cancers, while just as sensitive
Trials with people with newly-diagnosed colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer suggest that whole body MRI could reduce the time it takes to diagnose the stage of cancers.
 
The results are from two prospective trials with nearly 500 patients across 16 UK hospitals, published in The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology and The Lancet Respiratory Medicine journals.1,2
 
May 2, 2019
Researchers say high dose-rate brachytherapy could offer an effective treatment that is convenient for patients and brings potential time and cost savings for hospitals
A single high dose of radiation that can be delivered directly to the tumour within a few minutes is a safe and effective technique for treating men with low-risk prostate cancer, according to a study presented at the ESTRO 38 conference.
 
Radiotherapy traditionally involves a series of lower dose treatments that take place over several days or week. The new treatment, high dose-rate brachytherapy, delivers radiation via a set of tiny tubes.
 
May 2, 2019
The prospect of a CT scan can be scary for a child, but one student from the University of Salford in the UK is aiming to change that with her new business, ‘Stick with It’
CT scans are often difficult for children as they require the patient to lie completely still for a lengthy period of time. The scan can also be frightening due to its claustrophobic nature and loud volume.
 
Practitioners frequently report problems with getting children to comply; even the comforting presence of a parent or carer is made problematic by the lead-lined gowns they are forced to wear if they wish to remain in the room.
 
April 25, 2019
Chris was diagnosed with prostate cancer at the age of 67, having previously been treated for testicular cancer in 1976. His treatment pathway took many turns and below is his story
In 1976 Chris James successfully underwent an orchidectomy followed by external beam radiation therapy (ERBT) to remove his testicular cancer. 
 
March 18, 2019
Professor Evelien Dekker discusses the rising burden of colorectal cancer in Europe and the need for consistent and successful screening programmes across the continent
Colorectal cancer is Europe’s second biggest cancer killer, claiming the lives of nearly 200,000 people across the continent each year. Current trends predict that the burden of colorectal cancer could increase by 12% by 2020, affecting 502,000 Europeans a year by 2020.1
 
January 8, 2019
Mosul, Iraq’s second city, is slowly rebuilding its healthcare infrastructure after years of war and destruction. Dr Henryk Pich, a consultant anaesthetist and intensive care physician at the University of Dresden, Germany, visited the region soon after the fighting had ended, supported by the independent aid organisation CADUS

Dr Henryk Pich spent time travelling in the Middle East as a young man. Not surprisingly, he feels a personal connection to the region and, after seeing the devastation caused by years of war to cities such as Mosul, wanted to offer whatever help he could.

He contacted CADUS, an independent German aid organisation building mobile clinics for areas with significant need and, once the fighting had ended, joined a highly skilled, inter-disciplinary team of paramedics, nurses, doctors, technicians and project managers working in Mosul.

December 3, 2018
The study recommends active surveillance to prevent over-treatment, suggesting that 36% of patients with a new diagnosis are candidates for active surveillance, 30% of whom will ultimately have treatment for progression
A new study has confirmed the effectiveness of Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) screening in reducing prostate cancer mortality.
 
The retrospective cohort study of over 400,000 men, as published in Elsevier’s Urology® journal,1 set out to re-examine the value of PSA screening, to determine the optimal screening interval and the appropriate age groups to be screened. 
 
November 29, 2018
Researchers investigated cardiac function in relation to diagnosed OSA and self-reported snoring from data available through UK Biobank

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and snoring may lead to earlier impairment of cardiac function in women than in men, according to a new study presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America.

Moreover, the findings suggested that OSA may be vastly underdiagnosed among snorers.

November 28, 2018
Cryoablation represents a potential new weapon in the arsenal against breast cancer

Cryoablation — the destruction of cancer cells through freezing — shows early indications of effectiveness in treating women with low-risk breast cancers, according to research presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Researchers said that over the four years of the study, there has only been one case of cancer recurrence out of 180 patients.

November 27, 2018
Findings suggest the method's potential for dramatically reducing gadolinium dose without sacrificing diagnostic quality

Researchers are using artificial intelligence to reduce the dose of a contrast agent that may be left behind in the body after MRI exams, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

November 27, 2018
Researchers and cybersecurity experts have begun to examine ways to mitigate the risk of cyberattacks in medical imaging before they become a real danger

Two studies being presented at the 2018 annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) address the potential risk of cyberattacks in medical imaging.

The Internet has been highly beneficial to health care—radiology included—improving access in remote areas, allowing for faster and better diagnoses, and vastly improving the management and transfer of medical records and images. However, increased connectivity can lead to increased vulnerability to outside interference.

November 22, 2018
MRI exams of the brain using diffusion tensor imaging are a promising option for analysis of dementia risk

MRI brain scans perform better than common clinical tests at predicting which people will go on to develop Alzheimer's disease, according to a study being presented at the 2018 meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, irreversible brain disorder that destroys memory and thinking skills. The disease affects 5.5 million Americans, according to the National Institutes of Health.

October 9, 2018
Artificial intelligence enables content aggregation that extracts information from diverse healthcare data silos to help radiologists create actionable imaging reports
October 9, 2018
Hospital Healthcare Europe spoke with Jilly Croasdale of the UK Radiopharmacy Group about guidance on safe drawing up of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine departments
EU good manufacturing practice (GMP) relates to the manufacture of medicines, and in radiopharmacy this can be a challenge in some ways. Because the products have to be used immediately, it is not possible to perform all the usual end product testing that you would with other types of products. For example, sterility testing is done retrospectively, and, because the batch size is often one, it is not possible to sterility test each batch produced (or there may be nothing left to administer to the patients). 
 
October 9, 2018
Options for treating uterine fibroids have increased, including uterine artery embolisation and MRI-focused high intensity ultrasound, but patient preference and tailored treatment still remain key
October 9, 2018
Digital breast tomosynthesis, the latest generation technology in breast imaging, uses a three-dimensional, limited-angle tomographic breast imaging technique to provide multiple projection views, thus reducing interference from overlapping tissues
Breast cancer accounts for one in three cancers in women throughout the European Union (EU), making it the leading cancer site among women on the continent. With a mean breast cancer incidence rate of 70.7, western Europe also has one of the highest incidences of breast cancer in the world, accounting for 11 of the top 20 countries.1–3
 
Screening is the mainstay of breast cancer detection, with numerous studies finding that early detection translates into substantially reduced mortality rates.4–6
October 8, 2018
Contrast carries a small, and controversial, risk of acute kidney injury, and the use of a screening tool and point of care testing may provide the greatest opportunity to streamline the imaging pathway and provide assurance of patient safety